Phillip M. McCauley & Rodger A. Payne, "The Illogic of the Biological Weapons Taboo", Strategic Studies Quarterly, Spring 2010, Vol. 4, No. 1 [PDF]

Slide 27 from Reynolds Salerno, PhD., Manager, Chemical and Biological Weapons Nonproliferation, Sandia National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, "International Biological Threat Reduction at Sandia" July 31, 2006

Slide 13 from Susan Caskey, International Security Center, Sandia National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, "International Biological Threat Reduction at Sandia" October 20, 2006

Map modified from William Hoffman, Global Bioscience Clusters

Rinaldi, Andrea. "More than the sum of their parts? Clustering is becoming more prevalent in the biosciences, despite concerns over the sustainability and economic effectiveness of science parks and hubs,"EMBO reports, February 2006 [PDF]


"World At Risk" The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism, December 3, 2008

National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB)

National Institutes of Health Statement on NSABB Review of H5N1 Research, Dec. 20, 2011

Sword and Shield: Dual Uses of Pathogen Research, Jan. 5, 2011. What do stem cells have to do with bioterrorism?

Global Distribution of DNA Synthesis Foundries
Robert Carlson, PhD., University of Washington

The Stem Cell Dilemma
Leo Furcht MD. & William Hoffman

★Awarded a star by Kirkus Reviews
for "remarkable merit"

Global Maps of Human Technological Development

World Stem Cell Map

Stem Cell Research Centers Map 2008

Global Competitiveness Map

Global Competitiveness /
Stem Cell Research Map

Global Bioscience Clusters Map

Global Biotech Crops Map 2004

Digital Innovation Map 2000

Industrialization Map 1850

Origin of Food Production Map

Electrification - Earth at Night
Mayhew & Simmon (NASA/GSFC)

Maps created with GMT software
Updated 2/28/12

William Hoffman -

Disclaimer: This work is a communications project of William Hoffman, a non-faculty employee of the University of Minnesota, and not the University of Minnesota. It is meant to help inform public discussion of stem cell research and human development.

The Library of Congress
is preserving parts
of MBBNet through its
Web Archiving Project.